Myocardial Bridging: Diagnosis, Functional Assessment, and Management: JACC State-of-the-Art Review

David Sternheim, David A. Power, Rajeev Samtani, Anapoorna Kini, Valentin Fuster, Samin Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Myocardial bridging (MB) is a congenital coronary anomaly in which a segment of the epicardial coronary artery traverses through the myocardium for a portion of its length. The muscle overlying the artery is termed a myocardial bridge, and the intramyocardial segment is referred to as a tunneled artery. MB can occur in any coronary artery, although is most commonly seen in the left anterior descending artery. Although traditionally considered benign in nature, increasing attention is being given to specific subsets of MB associated with ischemic symptomatology. The advent of contemporary functional and anatomic imaging modalities, both invasive and noninvasive, have dramatically improved our understanding of dynamic pathophysiology associated with MBs. This review provides a contemporary overview of epidemiology, pathobiology, diagnosis, functional assessment, and management of MBs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2196-2212
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number22
StatePublished - 30 Nov 2021


  • myocardial bridge
  • myocardial bridging
  • state-of-the-art review


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