Myelomatous involvement of pleural effusions developing in patients with multiple myeloma is extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported so far. It is thought to represent an aggressive clinical progression of disease and is usually associated with severe complications, poor prognosis and high mortality. Ferritin is a marker of inflammatory pathways that plays a significant role in plasma cell malignancies and has been studied as a prognostic factor for multiple myeloma. In severe inflammatory states such as septic shock or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, extreme levels of ferritin are thought to precipitate a cytokine storm associated with poor clinical outcomes. We present a case of myelomatous pleural effusion associated with extreme levels of ferritin and explore the possibility of a connection between this rare entity and other severe inflammatory states, which could account for its ominous outcomes and poor prognosis.
- Multiple myeloma
- Pleural effusion