Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children

Muhammad Waseem, Masood A. Shariff, Ee Tein Tay, David Mortel, Shivraj Savadkar, Horton Lee, Noah Kondamudi, Tian Liang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a newly recognized condition affecting children with recent infection or exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MIS-C has symptoms that affect multiple organs systems, with some clinical features resembling Kawasaki disease (KD) and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Objective of the Review: Our goal was to review the current literature and describe the evaluation and treatment algorithms for children suspected of having MIS-C who present to the emergency department. Discussion: MIS-C has a wide clinical spectrum and diagnosis is based on a combination of both clinical and laboratory findings. The exact mechanism of immune dysregulation of MIS-C is not well understood. Physical findings may evolve and do not necessarily appear at the same time. Gastrointestinal, cardiac, inflammatory, and coagulopathy manifestations and dysfunction are seen frequently in MIS-C. Conclusions: The diagnosis of MIS-C is based on clinical presentation and specific laboratory findings. In the emergency setting, a high level of suspicion for MIS-C is required in patients exposed to COVID-19. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy offer the best chance for optimal outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28-37
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Emergency Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • Kawasaki disease
  • PMIS
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children


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