Multiple sclerosis: Immunopathological heterogeneity and its implications

Britta Engelhardt, Manuel Comabella, Andrew Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


MS is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the CNS. For the past decades, several immunomodulatory disease-modifying treatments with multiple presumed mechanisms of action have been developed, but MS remains an incurable disease. Whereas high efficacy, at least in early disease, corroborates underlying immunopathophysiology, there is profound heterogeneity in clinical presentation as well as immunophenotypes that may also vary over time. In addition, functional plasticity in the immune system as well as in the inflamed CNS further contributes to disease heterogeneity. In this review, we will highlight immune-pathophysiological and associated clinical heterogeneity that may have an implication for more precise immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies in MS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)869-881
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Immunology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • precision medicine ⋅ biomarkers ⋅ brain barriers immunotherapy ⋅multiple sclerosis


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