Multiphoton gradient index endoscopy for evaluation of diseased human prostatic tissue ex vivo

David M. Huland, Manu Jain, Dimitre G. Ouzounov, Brian D. Robinson, Diana S. Harya, Maria M. Shevchuk, Paras Singhal, Chris Xu, Ashutosh K. Tewari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Multiphoton microscopy can instantly visualize cellular details in unstained tissues. Multiphoton probes with clinical potential have been developed. This study evaluates the suitability of multiphoton gradient index (GRIN) endoscopy as a diagnostic tool for prostatic tissue. A portable and compact multiphoton endoscope based on a 1-mm diameter, 8-cm length GRIN lens system probe was used. Fresh ex vivo samples were obtained from 14 radical prostatectomy patients and benign and malignant areas were imaged and correlated with subsequent H&E sections. Multiphoton GRIN endoscopy images of unfixed and unprocessed prostate tissue at a subcellular resolution are presented. We note several differences and identifying features of benign versus low-grade versus high-grade tumors and are able to identify periprostatic tissues such as adipocytes, periprostatic nerves, and blood vessels. Multiphoton GRIN endoscopy can be used to identify both benign and malignant lesions in ex vivo human prostate tissue and may be a valuable diagnostic tool for real-time visualization of suspicious areas of the prostate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116011
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Multiphoton endoscopy
  • Optical histology
  • Prostate cancer
  • Second-harmonic generation
  • Two-photon microscopy


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