Solid renal masses (SRMs) are increasingly detected and encompass both benign and malignant masses, with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the most common malignant SRM. Most patients with SRMs will undergo management without a priori pathologic confirmation. There is an unmet need to noninvasively diagnose and characterize RCCs, as significant variability in clinical behavior is observed and a wide range of differing management options exist. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are increasingly used for SRM characterization. Multiparametric (mp) MRI techniques can provide insight into tumor biology by probing different physiologic/pathophysiologic processes noninvasively. These include sequences that probe tissue microstructure, including intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) and T1 relaxometry; oxygen metabolism (blood oxygen level dependent [BOLD-MRI]); as well as vascular flow and perfusion (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI [DCE-MRI] and arterial spin labeling [ASL]). In this review, we will discuss each mpMRI method in terms of its principles, roles, and discuss the results of human studies for SRM assessment. Future validation of these methods may help to enable a personalized management approach for patients with SRM in the emerging era of precision medicine. Evidence Level: 5. Technical Efficacy: 2.
- T relaxometry
- arterial spin labeling (ASL)
- blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD-MRI)
- dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI)
- intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI)