Background: Disparate COVID-19 outcomes have been observed between Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and White patients. The underlying causes for these disparities are not fully understood. Methods: This was a retrospective study utilizing electronic medical record data from five hospitals within a single academic health system based in New York City. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify demographic, clinical, and lab values associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 3,086 adult patients with self-reported race/ethnicity information presenting to the emergency department and hospitalized with COVID-19 up to April 13, 2020, were included in this study. While older age (multivariable odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% CI 1.05–1.07) and baseline hypoxia (multivariable OR 2.71, 95% CI 2.17–3.36) were associated with increased mortality overall and across all races/ethnicities, non-Hispanic Black (median age 67, interquartile range (IQR) 58–76) and Hispanic (median age 63, IQR 50–74) patients were younger and had different comorbidity profiles as compared to non-Hispanic White patients (median age 73, IQR 62–84; p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Among inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19 mortality, there was a significant interaction between the non-Hispanic Black population and interleukin-1-beta (interaction p-value 0.04). Conclusions: This analysis of a multiethnic cohort highlights the need for inclusion and consideration of diverse populations in ongoing COVID-19 trials targeting inflammatory cytokines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number933190
JournalFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
StatePublished - 22 Jul 2022


  • African American
  • COVID-19
  • electronic medical record
  • interleukin-1beta
  • risk factors


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