Multichannel Electrocardiograms Obtained by a Smartwatch for the Diagnosis of ST-Segment Changes

Ciro Indolfi, Carmen Anna Maria Spaccarotella, Alberto Polimeni, Serena Migliarino, Elisa Principe, Antonio Curcio, Annalisa Mongiardo, Sabato Sorrentino, Salvatore De Rosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Importance: Acute coronary syndromes are the leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of disease burden in high-income countries. Quick and accurate diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is essential to avoid fatal events, for timely intervention, and to improve the prognosis. Objective: To prospectively investigate the feasibility and accuracy of a smartwatch in recording multiple electrocardiographic (ECG) leads and detecting ST-segment changes associated with acute coronary syndromes compared with a standard 12-lead ECG. Design, Setting, and Participants: A commercially available smartwatch was used in 100 participants to obtain multiple-channel ECGs. The study was conducted from April 19, 2019, to January 23, 2020. Fifty-four patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction, 27 patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and 19 healthy individuals were included in the study. The watch was placed in different body positions to obtain 9 bipolar ECG tracings (corresponding to Einthoven leads I, II, and III and precordial leads V1-V6) that were compared with a simultaneous standard 12-lead ECG. Main Outcomes and Measures: The concordance among the results of the smartwatch and standard ECG recordings was assessed using the Cohen κ coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Of the 100 participants in the study, 67 were men (67%); mean (SD) age was 61 (16) years. Agreement was found between the smartwatch and standard ECG for the identification of a normal ECG (Cohen κ coefficient, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.78-1.00), ST-segment elevation changes (Cohen κ coefficient, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97), and non-ST-segment elevation changes (Cohen κ coefficient, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.96). In addition, the Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated agreement between the smartwatch and standard ECG to detect the amplitude of ST-segment changes (bias, -0.003; SD, 0.18; lower limit, -0.36; and upper limit, 0.36). Use of the smartwatch ECG for the diagnosis of normal ECG showed a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI, 60%-97%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 95%-100%); for ST elevation, sensitivity was 93% (95% CI, 82%-99%) and specificity was 95% (95% CI, 85%-99%); and for NSTE ECG alterations, sensitivity was 94% (95% CI, 81%-99%) and specificity was 92% (95% CI, 83%-97%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest agreement between the multichannel smartwatch ECG and standard ECG for the identification of ST-segment changes in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1176-1180
Number of pages5
JournalJAMA Cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


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