Multi-parametric MRI of the prostate: Factors predicting extracapsular extension at the time of radical prostatectomy

Geoffrey S. Gaunay, Vinay Patel, Paras Shah, Daniel Moreira, Ardeshir R. Rastinehad, Eran Ben-Levi, Robert Villani, Manish A. Vira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objective Extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer is a poor prognostic factor associated with progression, recurrence after treatment, and increased prostate cancer-related mortality. Accurate staging prior to radical prostatectomy is crucial in avoidance of positive margins and when planning nerve-sparing procedures. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate has shown promise in this regard, but is hampered by poor sensitivity. We sought to identify additional clinical variables associated with pathologic ECE and determine our institutional accuracy in the detection of ECE amongst patients who went on to radical prostatectomy. Methods mpMRI studies performed between the years 2012 and 2014 were cross-referenced with radical prostatectomy specimens. Predictive properties of ECE as well as additional clinical and biochemical variables to identify pathology-proven prostate cancer ECE were analyzed. Results The prevalence of ECE was 32.4%, and the overall accuracy of mpMRI for ECE was 84.1%. Overall mpMRI sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detection of ECE were 58.3%, 97.8%, 93.3%, and 81.5%, respectively. Specific mpMRI characteristics predictive of pathologic ECE included primary lesion size ((20.73 ± 9.09) mm, mean ± SD, p < 0.001), T2 PIRADS score (p = 0.009), overall primary lesion score (p < 0.001), overall study suspicion score (p = 0.003), and MRI evidence of seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) (p = 0.001). Conclusion While mpMRI is an accurate preoperative assessment tool for the detection of ECE, its overall sensitivity is poor, likely related to the low detection rate of standard protocol MRI for microscopic extraprostatic disease. The additional mpMRI findings described may also be considered in surgical margin planning prior to radical prostatectomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-36
Number of pages6
JournalAsian Journal of Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Extracapsular extension
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostatectomy
  • Staging


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