The IMPACC cohort, composed of >1,000 hospitalized COVID-19 participants, contains five illness trajectory groups (TGs) during acute infection (first 28 days), ranging from milder (TG1–3) to more severe disease course (TG4) and death (TG5). Here, we report deep immunophenotyping, profiling of >15,000 longitudinal blood and nasal samples from 540 participants of the IMPACC cohort, using 14 distinct assays. These unbiased analyses identify cellular and molecular signatures present within 72 h of hospital admission that distinguish moderate from severe and fatal COVID-19 disease. Importantly, cellular and molecular states also distinguish participants with more severe disease that recover or stabilize within 28 days from those that progress to fatal outcomes (TG4 vs. TG5). Furthermore, our longitudinal design reveals that these biologic states display distinct temporal patterns associated with clinical outcomes. Characterizing host immune responses in relation to heterogeneity in disease course may inform clinical prognosis and opportunities for intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101079
JournalCell Reports Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - 20 Jun 2023


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • immunophenotyping
  • longitudinal modeling
  • multi-omics
  • systems immunology


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