Multi-institutional Study of Otolaryngology Resident Intraoperative Experiences for Key Indicator Procedures

Jenny X. Chen, Francis Deng, Andrey Filimonov, Elizabeth A. Shuman, Emily Marchiano, Brian C. George, Marc Thorne, Steven D. Pletcher, Michael Platt, Marita S. Teng, Elliott D. Kozin, Stacey T. Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: There is concern that current otolaryngology residents may not receive adequate surgical training. We aimed to characterize residents’ surgical experiences at 5 academic centers performing the 14 key indicator procedures (KIPs) outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Five otolaryngology training programs. Methods: Data were gathered from December 2019 to December 2020 with a smartphone application from the Society for Improving Medical Professional Learning. After each operation, residents and faculty rated trainee autonomy on a 4-level Zwisch scale and performance on a 5-level modified Dreyfus scale. Results: Residents and attendings (n = 92 and 78, respectively) logged 2984 evaluations. Attending ratings of resident autonomy and performance increased with training level (P <.001). Resident self-assessments of autonomy and performance were lower than paired attending assessments (P <.001). Among attending evaluations of KIPs performed by senior residents (postgraduate year 4 or 5), 55% of cases were performed with meaningful autonomy (passive help or supervision only). Similarly, attendings rated 55% of these cases as a practice-ready or exceptional performance. Senior residents had meaningful autonomy for ≥50% of cases for most KIPs, with the exception of flaps and grafts (40%), pediatric/adult airway (39%), and stapedectomy/ossiculoplasty (33%). Similarly, senior residents received practice-ready or exceptional performance ratings for ≥50% of cases across all KIPs other than pediatric/adult airway (42%) and stapedectomy/ossiculoplasty (33%). Conclusion: In this multicenter study, resident surgical autonomy and performance varied across otolaryngology KIPs. The development of nationwide benchmarks will help programs and residents set educational goals. Level of evidence: 2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-273
Number of pages6
JournalOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • autonomy
  • competency
  • performance
  • residency training
  • surgical education


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