MRI in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and research update

Matilde Inglese, Maria Petracca

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Purpose of review Clinical MRI is of paramount importance for multiple sclerosis diagnosis but lacks the specificity to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying disease onset and progression. The application of advanced MR sequences allows the characterization of diverse and complex pathological mechanisms, granting insights into multiple sclerosis natural history and response to treatment. Recent findings This review provides an update on the most recent international guidelines for optimal standard imaging of multiple sclerosis and discusses advantages and limitations of advanced imaging approaches for investigating inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. An overview is provided for methods devoted to imaging leptomeningeal enhancement, microglial activation, demyelination, neuronal metabolic damage and neuronal loss. Summary The application of magnetic resonance (MR) guidelines to standard-of-care MR protocols, although still limited, would substantially contribute to the optimization of multiple sclerosis management. From an academic perspective, different mechanism-specific imaging techniques are available and offer a powerful tool to elucidate multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, monitor disease progression and guide therapeutic choices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-255
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Neurology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • MRI markers of inflammation
  • advanced MRI techniques
  • demyelination and neurodegeneration
  • standard clinical MRI


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