Monitoring alloimmune response in kidney transplantation

Oriol Bestard, Paolo Cravedi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Currently, immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant recipients is generally performed by protocols and adjusted according to functional or histological evaluation of the allograft and/or signs of drug toxicity or infection. As a result, a large fraction of patients are likely to receive too much or too little immunosuppression, exposing them to higher rates of infection, malignancy and drug toxicity, or increased risk of acute and chronic graft injury from rejection, respectively. Developing reliable biomarkers is crucial for individualizing therapy aimed at extending allograft survival. Emerging data indicate that many assays, likely used in panels rather than single assays, have potential to be diagnostic and predictive of short and also long-term outcome. While numerous cross-sectional studies have found associations between the results of these assays and the presence of clinically relevant post-transplantation outcomes, data from prospective studies are still scanty, thereby preventing widespread implementation in the clinic. Of note, some prospective, randomized, multicenter biomarker-driven studies are currently on-going aiming at confirming such preliminary data. These works as well as other future studies are highly warranted to test the hypothesis that tailoring immunosuppression on the basis of results offered by these biomarkers leads to better outcomes than current standard clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-200
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Nephrology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2017


  • Acute rejection
  • Adaptive immunity
  • Biomarker
  • Kidney transplantation
  • MLR
  • T and B cell ELISPOT


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