35 Scopus citations


Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten (PTEN) acts as a tumor suppressor through both PI3K-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Reduced PTEN activity has been shown to affect not only tumor cell proliferation and survival but also the microenvironmental context in which nascent tumors develop. As a result of the multifaceted tumor-suppressive roles of PTEN, tumors evolve by selecting for clones in which PTEN activity is lost. PTEN activity within tumors can be modulated in numerous ways, including direct mutation, epigenetic regulation, and amplification or mutation of other proteins that can regulate or degrade PTEN. These events functionally prevent PTEN protein from acting within tumor cells. Paracrine roles for PTEN gene products (exosomal PTEN and PTEN-L) have recently been identified, through which PTEN gene products produced in one cell are able to enter recipient cells and contribute to PTEN functions. In preclinical models purified PTEN-L protein was able to enter tumor xenografts and downregulate PI3K signaling as well as cause tumor cell death. Here, we review the role of PTEN as a multifaceted tumor suppressor and reflect upon the potential for PTEN restoration therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5379-5383
Number of pages5
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number21
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2014


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