Molecular mechanisms and treatments for ocular symblephara

Aditi Swarup, Christopher N. Ta, Albert Y. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


There are currently no effective methods to prevent or durably treat ocular symblephara, the adhesions between the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva. How symblephara form at the molecular level is largely unknown. We present here an overview of current clinical symblephara treatments and describe potential molecular mechanisms behind conjunctival adhesion formation that may inform future symblephara treatment and prevention options. Understanding how symblephara form at the molecular level will facilitate treatment development. Preventative therapies may be possible by targeting symblephara progenitor cells immediately after injuries, while novel therapeutics should be aimed at modulating TGF-β pathways and effector cells in conjunctival scarring to treat symblephara formation more effectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-30
Number of pages12
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Conjunctival inflammation
  • Molecular mechanisms
  • Preventative therapies
  • Symblephara
  • Treatments


Dive into the research topics of 'Molecular mechanisms and treatments for ocular symblephara'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this