Molecular expression and characterization of erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gain-of-function mutations causing X-linked protoporphyria

David F. Bishop, Vassili Tchaikovskii, Irina Nazarenko, Robert J. Desnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) (MIM 300752) is a recently recognized erythropoietic porphyria due to gain-of-function mutations in the erythroid-specific aminolevulinate synthase gene (ALAS2). Previously, two exon 11 small deletions, c._1699_1670ΔAT (ΔAT) and c.17061709ΔAGTG (ΔAGTG), that prematurely truncated or elongated the ALAS2 polypeptide, were reported to increase enzymatic activity 20- to 40-fold, causing the erythroid accumulation of protoporphyrins, cutaneous photosensitivity and liver disease. The mutant ΔAT and ΔAGTG ALAS2 enzymes, two novel mutations, c.1734ΔG (ΔG) and c.1642C>T (p.Q548X), and an engineered deletion c.1670-1671TC>GA p.F557X were expressed, and their purified enzymes were characterized. Wild-type and ΔAGTG enzymes exhibited similar amounts of 54- and 52-kDa polypeptides on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), whereas the ΔAT and p.F557X had only 52-kDa polypeptides. Compared to the purified wild-type enzyme, ΔAT, ΔAGTG and Q548X enzymes had increased specific activities that were only 1.8-, 3.1- and 1.6-fold, respectively. Interestingly, binding studies demonstrated that the increased activity Q548X enzyme did not bind to succinyl-CoA synthetase. The elongated ΔG enzyme had wild-type specific activity, kinetics and thermostability; twice the wild-type purification yield (56 versus 25%); and was primarily a 54-kDa form, suggesting greater stability in vivo. On the basis of studies of mutant enzymes, the maximal gain-of function region spanned 57 amino acids between 533 and 580. Thus, these ALAS2 gain-of-function mutations increased the specific activity (ΔAT, ΔAGTG and p.Q548X) or stability (ΔG) of the enzyme, thereby leading to the increased erythroid protoporphyrin accumulation causing XLP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-25
Number of pages8
JournalMolecular Medicine
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Jan 2013

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Molecular expression and characterization of erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gain-of-function mutations causing X-linked protoporphyria'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this