Molecular biomarkers for vascular cognitive impairment and dementia

Satoshi Hosoki, Gurpreet K. Hansra, Tharusha Jayasena, Anne Poljak, Karen A. Mather, Vibeke S. Catts, Ruslan Rust, Abhay Sagare, Jason C. Kovacic, Amy Brodtmann, Anders Wallin, Berislav V. Zlokovic, Masafumi Ihara, Perminder S. Sachdev

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


As disease-specific interventions for dementia are being developed, the ability to identify the underlying pathology and dementia subtypes is increasingly important. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer disease, but progress in identifying molecular biomarkers for accurate diagnosis of VCID has been relatively limited. In this Review, we examine the roles of large and small vessel disease in VCID, considering the underlying pathophysiological processes that lead to vascular brain injury, including atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, ischaemic injury, haemorrhage, hypoperfusion, endothelial dysfunction, blood–brain barrier breakdown, inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and neuronal and glial degeneration. We consider the key molecules in these processes, including proteins and peptides, metabolites, lipids and circulating RNA, and consider their potential as molecular biomarkers alone and in combination. We also discuss the challenges in translating the promise of these biomarkers into clinical application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-753
Number of pages17
JournalNature Reviews Neurology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


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