Moderate hypothermia and unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion: A contemporary cerebral protection strategy for aortic arch surgery

Bradley G. Leshnower, Richard J. Myung, Patrick D. Kilgo, Thomas A. Vassiliades, J. David Vega, Vinod H. Thourani, John D. Puskas, Robert A. Guyton, Edward P. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Cerebral protection techniques during aortic arch surgery include deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, retrograde cerebral perfusion, and (or) antegrade cerebral perfusion. It is unclear whether unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (uSACP) in the setting of moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) constitutes an effective cerebral protective strategy during aortic arch reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective review was performed for all aortic arch cases involving uSACP between January 2004 and December 2009. Of these 412 patients, 97 (24%) were treated emergently. Adverse outcomes included operative mortality, permanent neurologic dysfunction, temporary neurologic dysfunction, and renal failure requiring dialysis. Potential selection bias was controlled by the inclusion of 11 covariates. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to model adverse outcome as a function of MHCA and the covariates. Adjusted odds ratios were formulated along with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Three hundred forty-four patients underwent hemiarch reconstruction and 68 patients underwent total arch replacement. The mean core body temperature at the initiation of uSACP was 25.7°C ± 2.8°C with a uSACP time of 30 ± 15 minutes. Overall operative mortality occurred in 29 (7.0%) patients. The incidence of permanent neurologic dysfunction and temporary neurologic dysfunction were 3.6% and 5.1%, respectively. Nineteen (4.6%) patients suffered postoperative renal failure requiring dialysis. In the adjusted analysis, MHCA was not found to be an independent predictor of mortality, permanent neurologic dysfunction, temporary neurologic dysfunction, or renal failure requiring dialysis. Conclusions: The MHCA with adjunctive uSACP is not an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes after aortic arch surgery. These data suggest that MHCA combined with uSACP represents an effective cerebral protective strategy in patients undergoing arch reconstruction in both the elective and emergent settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-554
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Volume90
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes

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