Modeling the Impact of Prehospital Triage on a True-Life Drip and Ship Mechanical Thrombectomy Urban Patient Cohort

Stavros Matsoukas, Brian Giovanni, Liorah Rubinstein, Shahram Majidi, Laura K. Stein, Johanna T. Fifi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The aim of the study was to model the effect of prehospital triage of emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) to endovascular capable center (ECC) on the timing of thrombectomy and intravenous (IV) thrombolysis using real-world data from a multihospital system. Methods: We selected a cohort of 77 consecutive stroke patients who were brought by emergency medical services (EMS) to a nonendovascular capable center and then transferred to an ECC for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) ("actual"drip and ship [DS] cohort). We created a hypothetical scenario (bypass model [BM]), modeling transfer of the patients directly to an ECC, based on patients' initial EMS pickup address and closest ECC. Using another cohort of 73 consecutive patients, who were brought directly to an ECC by EMS and underwent endovascular intervention, we calculated mean door-to-needle and door-to-arterial puncture (AP) times ("actual"mothership [MS] cohort). Timings in the actual MS cohort and the actual DS cohort were compared to timings from the BM cohort. Results: Median first medical contact (FMC) to IV thrombolysis time was 87.5 min (interquartile range [IQR] = 38) for the DS versus 78.5 min (IQR = 8.96) for the BM cohort, with p = 0.1672. Median FMC to AP was 244 min (IQR = 97) versus 147 min (IQR = 8.96) (p < 0.001), and median FMC to TICI 2B+ time was 299 min (IQR = 108.5) versus 197 min (IQR = 8.96) (p < 0.001) for the DS versus BM cohort, respectively. Conclusions: Modeled EMS prehospital triage of ELVO patients' results in shorter MT times without a change in thrombolysis times. As triage tools increase in sensitivity and specificity, EMS triage protocols stand to improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-144
Number of pages8
JournalCerebrovascular Diseases Extra
Issue number3
StatePublished - 25 Nov 2021


  • Bypass model
  • Drip and ship cohort
  • Intravenous thrombolysis
  • Large vessel occlusion
  • Mothership cohort
  • Stroke triage scale


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