Background and Objectives: Mobile integrated health (MIH) interventions have not been well described in older adult populations. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the characteristics and effectiveness of MIH programs on health-related outcomes among older adults. Research Design and Methods: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, AgeLine, Social Work Abstracts, and The Cochrane Library through June 2021 for randomized controlled trials or cohort studies evaluating MIH among adults aged 65 and older in the general community. Studies were screened for eligibility against predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Using at least 2 independent reviewers, quality was appraised using the Downs and Black checklist and study characteristics and findings were synthesized and evaluated for potential bias. Results: Screening of 2,160 records identified 15 studies. The mean age of participants was 67 years. The MIH interventions varied in their focus, community paramedic training, types of assessments and interventions delivered, physician oversight, use of telemedicine, and post-visit follow-up. Studies reported significant reductions in emergency call volume (5 studies) and immediate emergency department (ED) transports (3 studies). The 3 studies examining subsequent ED visits and 4 studies examining readmission rates reported mixed results. Studies reported low adverse event rates (5 studies), high patient and provider satisfaction (5 studies), and costs equivalent to or less than usual paramedic care (3 studies). Discussion and Implications: There is wide variability in MIH provider training, program coordination, and quality-based metrics, creating heterogeneity that make definitive conclusions challenging. Nonetheless, studies suggest MIH reduces emergency call volume and ED transport rates while improving patient experience and reducing overall health care costs.
- Health care systems and management (telehealth)
- Information technology
- and community
- based care and services