Microsurgical management of hypoglossal schwannomas over 3 decades: A modified grading scale to guide surgical approach

Yoichi Nonaka, Peter M. Grossi, Ketan R. Bulsara, Raymond M. Taniguchi, Allan H. Friedman, Takanori Fukushima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Background: Schwannomas originating from the hypoglossal nerve are extremely rare. Microsurgical resection with the goal for cure has traditionally been associated with a high risk of postoperative deficits. Objective: To summarize our clinical experience using tailored cranial base approaches for these formidable lesions. Methods: The clinical records of 13 patients were retrospectively reviewed. In addition, all reported patients in the literature were reviewed. The extreme lateral infrajugular transcondylar-transtubercular exposure approach was used in all of our patients. Based on our experience and literature analysis, we propose the following modified grading scale to facilitate surgical planning: type A, intradural tumors; type B, dumbbell-shaped tumors; type C, extracranial tumors; and type D, peripheral tumors. Results: All 13 patients underwent total, near-total, or subtotal tumor resection. Eight patients were men, 5 were women (mean age, 41.7 years). Sural nerve graft reconstruction for the hypoglossal nerve was performed in 4 patients. Three of the 4 patients in whom nerve reconstruction was performed regained satisfactory movement of their tongue. In the review of the literature, the mean patient age was 45.8 years. Patients presented with tongue atrophy (91.6%), headache (60.9%), and dysphagia (31.8%). The tumors were categorized as type A in 31.7% of these patients, type B in 38.6%, type C in 6.2%, and type D in 23.4%. Conclusion: The extreme lateral infrajugular transcondylar-transtubercular exposure approach, which is a modification of the extreme lateral suboccipital approach, provides sufficient exposure for most intracranial dumbbell-shaped hypoglossal schwannomas. Hypoglossal nerve reconstruction using a sural nerve graft improves tongue atrophy and movement for patients with resected nerves.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-140
Number of pages20
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
StatePublished - Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Hypoglossal canal
  • Hypoglossal schwannoma
  • Jugular tubercle
  • Occipital condyle
  • Sural nerve
  • Transcondylar approach


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