Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. II: Neuropathology

R. H. Garman, A. S. Fix, B. S. Jortner, K. F. Jensen, J. F. Hardisty, L. Claudio, S. Ferenc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Neuropathologic assessment of chemically induced developmental alterations in the nervous system for regulatory purposes is a multifactorial, complex process. This calls for careful qualitative and quantitative morphologic study of numerous brains at several developmental stages in rats. Quantitative evaluation may include such basic methods as determination of brain weight and dimensions as well as the progressively more complex approaches of linear, areal, or stereologic measurement of brain sections. Histologic evaluation employs routine stains (such as hematoxylin and eosin), which can be complemented by a variety of special and immunohistochemical procedures. These brain studies are augmented by morphologic assessment of selected peripheral nervous system structures. Studies of this nature require a high level of technical skill as well as special training on the part of the pathologist. The pathologist should have knowledge of normal microscopic neuroanatomy/neuronal circuitry and an understanding of basic principles of developmental neurobiology, such as familiarity with the patterns of physiologic or programmed cell death (apoptosis) expected at those developmental stages to be examined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-100
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain development
  • Fixation
  • Histology
  • Morphometry
  • Neuropathology
  • Neurotoxicity testing
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Special stains
  • Stereology


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