Children are constantly exposed to a wide range of environmental factors including essential and nonessential metals. In recent years, the mixture paradigm has emerged to foster the examination of combined effects that emerge from exposures to multiple elements. In this review, we summarized recent literature studying the relationship between prenatal and childhood metal mixtures with neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our review highlights two basic principles to emerge from this approach. First, recent findings emphasize that the effect of a given exposure is contextual and may be dependent on past or concurrent metal exposures. Second, the timing of exposures is equally critical to the mixture composition in determining neurodevelopmental effects. Our discussion emphasizes how these principles may apply to future exposure-related neurodevelopmental studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28-32
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Toxicology
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Behavior
  • Cognition
  • Metals
  • Mixtures
  • Neurodevelopment


Dive into the research topics of 'Metal mixtures and neurodevelopment: Recent findings and emerging principles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this