Metagenomic Analysis of the Stool Microbiome in Patients Receiving Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Loss of Diversity Is Associated with Use of Systemic Antibiotics and More Pronounced in Gastrointestinal Graft-versus-Host Disease

Ernst Holler, Peter Butzhammer, Karin Schmid, Christian Hundsrucker, Josef Koestler, Katrin Peter, Wentao Zhu, Daniela Sporrer, Thomas Hehlgans, Marina Kreutz, Barbara Holler, Daniel Wolff, Matthias Edinger, Reinhard Andreesen, John E. Levine, James L. Ferrara, Andre Gessner, Rainer Spang, Peter J. Oefner

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399 Scopus citations

Abstract

Next-generation sequencing of the hypervariable V3 region of the 16s rRNA gene isolated from serial stool specimens collected from 31 patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) was performed toelucidate variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome in the course of allogeneic SCT. Metagenomic analysis was complemented by strain-specific enterococcal PCR and indirect assessment of bacterial load by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of urinary indoxyl sulfate. At the time of admission, patients showed a predominance of commensal bacteria. After transplantation, a relative shift toward enterococci was observed, which was more pronounced under antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of neutropenic infections. The shift was particularly prominent in patients that developed subsequently or suffered from active gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The mean proportion of enterococci in post-transplant stool specimens was 21% in patients who did not develop GI GVHD as compared with 46% in those that subsequently developed GI GVHD and 74% at the time of active GVHD. Enterococcal PCR confirmed predominance of Enterococcus faecium or both E.faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in these specimens. As a consequence of the loss of bacterial diversity, mean urinary indoxyl sulfatelevels dropped from 42.5±11μmol/L to 11.8±2.8μmol/L in all post-transplant samples and to 3.5±3μmol/L in samples from patients with active GVHD. Our study reveals major microbiome shifts in the course of allogeneic SCT that occur in the period of antibiotic treatment but are more prominent in association with GI GVHD. Our data indicate early microbiome shifts and a loss of diversity of the intestinal microbiome that may affect intestinal inflammation in the setting of allogeneic SCT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)640-645
Number of pages6
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Volume20
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Clinical allogeneic transplantation
  • GVHD
  • Metagenomics
  • Microbiome

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