Metabolite proton T2 mapping in the healthy rhesus macaque brain at 3 T

Songtao Liu, Oded Gonen, Roman Fleysher, Lazar Fleysher, James S. Babb, Brian J. Soher, Chan Gyu Joo, Eva Maria Ratai, R. Gilberto González

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4 Scopus citations


The structure and metabolism of the rhesus macaque brain, an advanced model for neurologic diseases and their treatment response, is often studied noninvasively with MRI and 1H-MR spectroscopy. Due to the shorter transverse relaxation time (T2) at the higher magnetic fields these studies favor, the echo times used in 1H-MR spectroscopy subject the metabolites to unknown T2 weighting, decreasing the accuracy of quantification which is key for inter- and intra-animal comparisons. To establish the "baseline" (healthy animal) T2 values, we mapped them for the three main metabolites' T2s at 3 T in four healthy rhesus macaques and tested the hypotheses that their mean values are similar (i) among animals; and (ii) to analogs regions in the human brain. This was done with three-dimensional multivoxel 1H-MR spectroscopy at (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.5 cm)3 = 180 μL spatial resolution over a 4.2 x 3.0 x 2.0 = 25 cm3 (∼30%) of the macaque brain in a two-point protocol that optimizes T2 precision per unit time. The estimated T 2s in several gray and white matter regions are all within 10% of those reported in the human brain (mean ± standard error of the mean): N-acetylaspartate = 316 ± 7, creatine = 177 ± 3, and choline = 264 ± 9 ms, with no statistically significant gray versus white matter differences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1292-1299
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Animal models
  • Brain metabolites
  • High magnetic field
  • MR spectroscopic imaging
  • Rhesus macaque
  • Transverse relaxation time


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