Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess metabolites associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) and inner retina structure. Methods: We cross-sectionally assessed 168 non-fasting plasma metabolites measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with IOP (n = 28,195), macular retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (mRNFL; n = 10,584), and macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer thickness (mGCIPL; n = 10,554) in the UK Biobank. We used multiple linear regression models adjusting for various covariates with probit-transformed metabolite levels as predictors for each outcome. Each estimate represents the difference in outcome variable per standard deviation increase in the probit-transformed metabolite values. We used the number of effective (NEF) tests and false discovery rate (FDR) to adjust for multiple comparisons for metabolites and metabolite classes, respectively. Results: In individual metabolite analysis, multiple amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, were associated with lower IOP (-0.12 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval = -0.16 to -0.07; NEF = 2.7E-05). Albumin, 3 hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and several lipids were associated with higher IOP (range = 0.07 to 0.18 mm Hg, NEF = ≤ 0.039). In IOP-adjusted analyses, five HDL-related metabolites were associated with thinner mRNFL (-0.15 microns for all metabolites, NEF = ≤ 0.027), whereas five LDL-related metabolites were associated with thicker mGCIPL (range = 0.17 to 0.20 microns; NEF = ≤ 0.044). In metabolite class analysis, the lipid components of lipoproteins (cholesterol, triglycerides, etc.) were not associated with our outcomes (FDR > 0.2 for all); yet multiple lipoproteins were significantly (FDR < 0.05) associated with all outcomes. Conclusions: Branched-chain amino acids were associated with lower IOP, HDL metabolites were associated with thinner mRNFL, and LDL metabolites were associated with thicker mGCIPL.