Menopause and hrt

Jenna Friedenthal, Frederick Naftolin, Lila Nachtigall, Steven Goldstein

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menstrual periods. It is determined retrospectively after one year of complete amenorrhea and is caused by a loss of ovarian follicle recruitment. Prior to menopause, women experience the menstrual transition, also known as perimenopause. This chapter explores the endocrinological changes associated with perimenopause and menopause. It explains the clinical symptoms associated with menopause. The chapter discusses the short and long term sequelae of menopause on the female body. One of the first hormonal indications of perimenopause is a rising follicle‐stimulating hormone. Mirroring the hormonal fluctuations occurring during perimenopause, menstrual cycles are also in flux at this time and become increasingly irregular. During the menopausal transition, declining estrogen levels are associated with increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. The chapter focuses on the role of ultrasound in patients with postmenopausal bleeding and incidental ultrasound findings in postmenopausal women and their significance.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEvidence-based Obstetrics and Gynecology
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781119072980
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Cognitive decline
  • Dementia
  • Endocrinological changes
  • Estrogen levels
  • Follicle‐stimulating hormone
  • Hormonal fluctuations
  • Menopause
  • Perimenopause
  • Postmenopausal bleeding


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