Mechanisms of Perineural Invasion

Richard L. Bakst, Richard J. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


Perineural invasion (PNI) is the neoplastic invasion of nerves. PNI is widely recognized as an important adverse pathological feature of many malignancies, including pancreatic, prostate, and head and neck cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite widespread acknowledgment of the clinical significance of PNI, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Recent theories of PNI pathogenesis have placed a significant emphasis on the active role of the nerve microenvironment, with PNI resulting from well-orchestrated reciprocal interactions between cancer and host. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in PNI may translate into targeted therapies for this ominous process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96-106
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neurological Surgery, Part B: Skull Base
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2016


  • chemokine
  • head and neck cancer
  • neurotrophic factors
  • perineural invasion


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