Measuring empathy in health care

Gabriel Sanchez, Melissa Ward Peterson, Erica D. Musser, Igor Galynker, Simran Sandhu, Adriana E. Foster

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Approaches to measuring empathy and component skills include self-assessment, as well as structured observer ratings quantifying the opportunities for empathy offered by patients during medical encounters and the health-care providers’ responses to these opportunities. In this chapter, we highlight validated self-rated instruments like the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy and the Individual Reactivity Index, as well as patient-rated empathy measurement tools like the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure. In addition, we will describe expert-rated empathy measurement tools like the Empathic Communication Coding System. We will emphasize the potential benefits of these tools as well as areas of further research needed to optimize measurement of empathy.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTeaching Empathy in Healthcare
Subtitle of host publicationBuilding a New Core Competency
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9783030298760
ISBN (Print)9783030298753
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Care
  • Communication coding system
  • Empathic
  • Empathy
  • Iri
  • Jspe
  • Measurement
  • Observer-rated
  • Patient-rated
  • Self-rated


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