Measuring cultural identity: Validation of a modified Cortes, Rogler and Malgady bicultural scale in three ethnic groups in New York

Juan E. Mezzich, Maria A. Ruiperez, Gihyun Yoon, Jason Liu, Maria I. Zapata-Vega

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cultural identity is central to health. Acculturation may be formulated with a bicultural model, assessing in parallel the degree of identification with both the original and the host culture. The Cortes, Rogler and Malgady Bicultural Scale (CRM-BS) is composed of two subscales: "original" culture and "mainstream-United States" (US) culture. It was modified into three ethnic versions: Latino, Korean and Chinese. Validation of the CRM-BS was conducted using health professionals and psychiatric patients from the above three ethnic groups and a control sample of mainstream-US (main-US) health professionals in New York City (n = 394). Mean time of completion was 3.7 min and 73% judged it to be easy to use. Strong test-retest reliability correlation coefficients were found (original culture, 0.78; mainstream-US, 0.82). The internal consistency was documented by high Cronbach's alpha values (original culture, 0.88; mainstream-US, 0.80). Factorial analysis revealed two factors, the first one involving all the items of the original culture and the second all of the mainstream-US items. Concerning its discriminant validity, non-main-US subjects scored significantly higher than main-US subjects on the original culture subscale, and vice versa. Construct validity was assessed comparing intergenerational mean scores on both subscales; as generations become older, mean scores for the original culture decreased, while those for the "host" culture increased. Results for each specific ethnic version are also presented. Cutoff scores were calculated to categorize the involvement with the original culture or the host culture, both of them, or neither.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-472
Number of pages22
JournalCulture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

Keywords

  • Acculturation
  • Biculturalism
  • Chinese
  • Identity
  • Korean
  • Latinos

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