The aim of this study was to determine whether a high daytime maximum blood pressure (BP) assessed by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) constitutes a risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, especially in those with increased arterial stiffness, because BP variability is linked to arterial stiffness. A total of 6294 participants (mean age, 68.6 ± 11.7 years; 78% treated hypertensive patients), who had at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor, were followed for 4.5 years. Daytime maximum BP was calculated as the highest 1-hour moving average of 2 consecutive systolic BP (SBP) readings during the daytime. The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) was calculated as 1 minus the slope of the linear regression line between SBP and diastolic BP during 24-hour BP. During the follow-up, there were 217 ASCVD events (119 stroke and 98 coronary artery disease [CAD]). In the higher-AASI group (≥0.5783), subjects in the top quartile of daytime maximum SBP (≥179.4 mmHg) had a greater risk of stroke events compared to those in other quartiles (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–3.15). In the higher-AASI group, participants with 24-hour SBP of 130 mmHg or more and in the top quartile of daytime maximum SBP had an adjusted HR (95%CI) of 2.55 (1.32–4.95) compared to those without. The analysis did not suggest that daytime maximum SBP posed a risk for CAD events and in the lower-AASI group. Daytime maximum SBP did pose a risk of stroke events, especially for those with higher arterial stiffness represented as AASI.
- Ambulatory arterial stiffness
- Ambulatory blood pressure
- Maximum blood pressure