Maternal and neonatal risk factors for cryptorchidism

Gertrud S. Berkowitz, Robert H. Lapinski, James H. Godbold, Stephen E. Dolgin, Ian R. Holzman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


We assessed risk factors for cryptorchidism in a prospective hospital-based cohort study at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. We examined at birth 6,699 singleton male neonates who were delivered between October 1987 and October 1990. Follow-up examinations were undertaken at 3 months and 1 year for those diagnosed as cryptorchid at birth. We calculated prevalence ratios and adjusted odds ratios according to selected maternal and neonatal characteristics for those who remained cryptorchid at the 1-year assessment. We found elevated risks for maternal obesity [prevalence ratio = 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11−5.27], for infants delivered by cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.29−3.65), for low birthweight (adjusted odds ratio = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.12−4.70), for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.16−4.35), and for infants with congenital malformations (prevalence ratio = 13.97; 95% CI = 1.27−26.67). We observed a seasonal effect, with a peak in births of cryptorchid infants during September through November and a smaller peak during the months of March through May. We found no evidence that young women, white women, or primiparas were at increased risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-131
Number of pages5
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1995


  • Birthweight
  • Cohort study
  • Cryptorchism
  • Gestational age
  • Risk factors


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