MANTIS: Model-Augmented Neural neTwork with Incoherent k-space Sampling for efficient MR parameter mapping

Fang Liu, Li Feng, Richard Kijowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Purpose: To develop and evaluate a novel deep learning-based image reconstruction approach called MANTIS (Model-Augmented Neural neTwork with Incoherent k-space Sampling) for efficient MR parameter mapping. Methods: MANTIS combines end-to-end convolutional neural network (CNN) mapping, incoherent k-space undersampling, and a physical model as a synergistic framework. The CNN mapping directly converts a series of undersampled images straight into MR parameter maps using supervised training. Signal model fidelity is enforced by adding a pathway between the undersampled k-space and estimated parameter maps to ensure that the parameter maps produced synthesized k-space consistent with the acquired undersampling measurements. The MANTIS framework was evaluated on the T2 mapping of the knee at different acceleration rates and was compared with 2 other CNN mapping methods and conventional sparsity-based iterative reconstruction approaches. Global quantitative assessment and regional T2 analysis for the cartilage and meniscus were performed to demonstrate the reconstruction performance of MANTIS. Results: MANTIS achieved high-quality T2 mapping at both moderate (R = 5) and high (R = 8) acceleration rates. Compared to conventional reconstruction approaches that exploited image sparsity, MANTIS yielded lower errors (normalized root mean square error of 6.1% for R = 5 and 7.1% for R = 8) and higher similarity (structural similarity index of 86.2% at R = 5 and 82.1% at R = 8) to the reference in the T2 estimation. MANTIS also achieved superior performance compared to direct CNN mapping and a 2-step CNN method. Conclusion: The MANTIS framework, with a combination of end-to-end CNN mapping, signal model-augmented data consistency, and incoherent k-space sampling, is a promising approach for efficient and robust estimation of quantitative MR parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-188
Number of pages15
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • MR parameter mapping
  • convolutional neural network
  • deep learning
  • image reconstruction
  • incoherence k-space sampling
  • model augmentation
  • model-based reconstruction


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