Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Report from the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2021

Silke Gillessen, Andrew Armstrong, Gert Attard, Tomasz M. Beer, Himisha Beltran, Anders Bjartell, Alberto Bossi, Alberto Briganti, Robert G. Bristow, Muhammad Bulbul, Orazio Caffo, Kim N. Chi, Caroline S. Clarke, Noel Clarke, Ian D. Davis, Johann S. de Bono, Ignacio Duran, Ros Eeles, Eleni Efstathiou, Jason EfstathiouOnyeanunam Ngozi Ekeke, Christopher P. Evans, Stefano Fanti, Felix Y. Feng, Karim Fizazi, Mark Frydenberg, Dan George, Martin Gleave, Susan Halabi, Daniel Heinrich, Celesta Higano, Michael S. Hofman, Maha Hussain, Nick James, Robert Jones, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Raja B. Khauli, Laurence Klotz, Raya Leibowitz, Chris Logothetis, Fernando Maluf, Robin Millman, Alicia K. Morgans, Michael J. Morris, Nicolas Mottet, Hind Mrabti, Declan G. Murphy, Vedang Murthy, William K. Oh, Piet Ost, Joe M. O'Sullivan, Anwar R. Padhani, Chris Parker, Darren M.C. Poon, Colin C. Pritchard, Danny M. Rabah, Dana Rathkopf, Rob E. Reiter, Mark Rubin, Charles J. Ryan, Fred Saad, Juan P. Sade, Oliver Sartor, Howard I. Scher, Neal Shore, Iwona Skoneczna, Eric Small, Matthew Smith, Howard Soule, Daniel E. Spratt, Cora N. Sternberg, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Christopher Sweeney, Matthew R. Sydes, Mary Ellen Taplin, Derya Tilki, Bertrand Tombal, Levent Türkeri, Hiroji Uemura, Hirotsugu Uemura, Inge van Oort, Kosj Yamoah, Dingwei Ye, Almudena Zapatero, Aurelius Omlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Background: Innovations in treatments, imaging, and molecular characterisation in advanced prostate cancer have improved outcomes, but various areas of management still lack high-level evidence to inform clinical practice. The 2021 Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) addressed some of these questions to supplement guidelines that are based on level 1 evidence. Objective: To present the voting results from APCCC 2021. Design, setting, and participants: The experts identified three major areas of controversy related to management of advanced prostate cancer: newly diagnosed metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC), the use of prostate-specific membrane antigen ligands in diagnostics and therapy, and molecular characterisation of tissue and blood. A panel of 86 international prostate cancer experts developed the programme and the consensus questions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The panel voted publicly but anonymously on 107 pre-defined questions, which were developed by both voting and non-voting panel members prior to the conference following a modified Delphi process. Results and limitations: The voting reflected the opinions of panellists and did not incorporate a standard literature review or formal meta-analysis. The answer options for the consensus questions received varying degrees of support from panellists, as reflected in this article and the detailed voting results reported in the Supplementary material. Conclusions: These voting results from a panel of experts in advanced prostate cancer can help clinicians and patients to navigate controversial areas of management for which high-level evidence is scant. However, diagnostic and treatment decisions should always be individualised according to patient characteristics, such as the extent and location of disease, prior treatment(s), comorbidities, patient preferences, and treatment recommendations, and should also incorporate current and emerging clinical evidence and logistic and economic constraints. Enrolment in clinical trials should be strongly encouraged. Importantly, APCCC 2021 once again identified salient questions that merit evaluation in specifically designed trials. Patient summary: The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference is a forum for discussing current diagnosis and treatment options for patients with advanced prostate cancer. An expert panel votes on predefined questions focused on the most clinically relevant areas for treatment of advanced prostate cancer for which there are gaps in knowledge. The voting results provide a practical guide to help clinicians in discussing treatment options with patients as part of shared decision-making.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-141
Number of pages27
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Advanced prostate cancer
  • Castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • Genetics
  • Hormone-sensitive prostate cancer
  • Imaging
  • Lu-PSMA therapy
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • PARP inhibition
  • Prostate cancer treatment
  • Tumour genomic profiling


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