Maintenance of Potent Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses in Long-Term Hemodialysis Patients after 1273-mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination

Maria Gonzalez-Perez, Jana Baranda, Marcos J. Berges-Buxeda, Patricia Conde, Mayte Pérez-Olmeda, Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Carmen Cámara, Maria del Rosario Llópez-Carratalá, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Pilar Portolés, Alberto Ortiz, Jose Portoles, Jordi Ochando

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Continuous evaluation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine effectiveness in hemodialysis (HD) patients is critical in this immunocompromised patient group with higher mortality rates due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The response towards vaccination in HD patients has been studied weeks after their first and second SARS-CoV-2 vaccination dose administration, but no further studies have been developed in a long-term manner, especially including both the humoral and cellular immune response. Longitudinal studies that monitor the immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in individuals undergoing HD are therefore necessary to prioritize vaccination strategies and minimize the pathogenic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in this high-risk group of patients. We followed up HD patients and healthy volunteers (HV) and monitored their humoral and cellular immune response three months after the second (V2+3M) and after the third vaccination dose (V3+3M), taking into consideration previous COVID-19 infections. Our cellular immunity results show that, while HD patients and HV individuals secrete comparable levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 in ex vivo stimulated whole blood at V2+3M in both naïve and COVID-19-recovered individuals, HD patients secrete higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 than HV at V3+3M. This is mainly due to a decay in the cellular immune response in HV individuals after the third dose. In contrast, our humoral immunity results show similar IgG binding antibody units (BAU) between HD patients and HV individuals at V3+3M, independently of their previous infection status. Overall, our results indicate that HD patients maintain strong cellular and humoral immune responses after repeated 1273-mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations over time. The data also highlights significant differences between cellular and humoral immunity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which emphasizes the importance of monitoring both arms of the immune response in the immunocompromised population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number574
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023


  • 1273-mRNA vaccine
  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2 vaccine
  • cellular response
  • chronic kidney disease
  • hemodialysis
  • humoral response


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