Purpose: This study aimed to (i) develop Magnetization-Prepared Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel (MP-GRASP) MRI using a stack-of-stars trajectory for rapid free-breathing T1 mapping and (ii) extend MP-GRASP to multi-echo acquisition (MP-Dixon-GRASP) for fat/water-separated (water-specific) T1 mapping. Methods: An adiabatic non-selective 180° inversion-recovery pulse was added to a gradient-echo-based golden-angle stack-of-stars sequence for magnetization-prepared 3D single-echo or 3D multi-echo acquisition. In combination with subspace-based GRASP-Pro reconstruction, the sequence allows for standard T1 mapping (MP-GRASP) or fat/water-separated T1 mapping (MP-Dixon-GRASP), respectively. The accuracy of T1 mapping using MP-GRASP was evaluated in a phantom and volunteers (brain and liver) against clinically accepted reference methods. The repeatability of T1 estimation was also assessed in the phantom and volunteers. The performance of MP-Dixon-GRASP for water-specific T1 mapping was evaluated in a fat/water phantom and volunteers (brain and liver). Results: ROI-based mean T1 values are correlated between the references and MP-GRASP in the phantom (R2 = 1.0), brain (R2 = 0.96), and liver (R2 = 0.73). MP-GRASP achieved good repeatability of T1 estimation in the phantom (R2 = 1.0), brain (R2 = 0.99), and liver (R2 = 0.82). Water-specific T1 is different from in-phase and out-of-phase composite T1 (composite T1 when fat and water signal are mixed in phase or out of phase) both in the phantom and volunteers. Conclusion: This work demonstrated the initial performance of MP-GRASP and MP-Dixon-GRASP MRI for rapid 3D T1 mapping and 3D fat/water-separated T1 mapping in the brain (without motion) and in the liver (during free breathing). With fat/water-separated T1 estimation, MP-Dixon-GRASP could be potentially useful for imaging patients with fatty-liver diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-114
Number of pages18
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • MP-Dixon-GRASP
  • T1 mapping
  • fat/water separation
  • free-breathing
  • golden-angle radial


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