Machine learning model for outcome prediction of patients suffering from acute diverticulitis arriving at the emergency department—a proof of concept study

Eyal Klang, Robert Freeman, Matthew A. Levin, Shelly Soffer, Yiftach Barash, Adi Lahat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background & Aims: We aimed at identifying specific emergency department (ED) risk factors for developing complicated acute diverticulitis (AD) and evaluate a machine learning model (ML) for predicting complicated AD. Methods: We analyzed data retrieved from unselected con-secutive large bowel AD patients from five hospitals from the Mount Sinai health system, NY. The study time frame was from January 2011 through March 2021. Data were used to train and evaluate a gradient-boosting machine learning model to identify patients with complicated diverticulitis, defined as a need for invasive intervention or in-hospital mortality. The model was trained and evaluated on data from four hospitals and externally validated on held-out data from the fifth hospi-tal. Results: The final cohort included 4997 AD visits. Of them, 129 (2.9%) visits had complicated diverticulitis. Patients with complicated diverticulitis were more likely to be men, black, and arrive by ambulance. Regarding laboratory values, patients with complicated diverticulitis had higher levels of absolute neutrophils (AUC 0.73), higher white blood cells (AUC 0.70), platelet count (AUC 0.68) and lactate (AUC 0.61), and lower levels of albumin (AUC 0.69), chloride (AUC 0.64), and sodium (AUC 0.61). In the external validation cohort, the ML model showed AUC 0.85 (95% CI 0.78–0.91) for predicting complicated diverticulitis. For Youden’s index, the model showed a sensitivity of 88% with a false positive rate of 1:3.6. Conclusions: A ML model trained on clinical measures provides a proof of concept performance in predicting complications in patients presenting to the ED with AD. Clinically, it implies that a ML model may classify low-risk patients to be discharged from the ED for further treatment under an ambulatory setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2102
JournalDiagnostics
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Acute diverticulitis
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Complications
  • Emergency
  • Machine learning
  • Outcome prediction

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