Longitudinal monitoring of IL-6 and CRP in inflammatory bowel disease using IBD-AWARE

Robert P. Hirten, Kai Chun Lin, Jessica Whang, Sarah Shahub, Nathan K.M. Churcher, Drew Helmus, Sriram Muthukumar, Bruce Sands, Shalini Prasad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


There are limitations to monitoring modalities for chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Wearable devices are scalable mobile health technology that present an opportunity to monitor markers that have been linked to worsening, chronic inflammatory conditions and enable remote monitoring. In this research article, we evaluate and demonstrate a proof-of-concept wearable device to longitudinally monitor inflammatory and immune markers linked to IBD disease activity in sweat compared to expression in serum. Sixteen participants with an IBD-related hospital admission and a C-reactive protein (CRP) > 5 μg/mL were followed for up to 5 days. The sweat sensing device also known as IBD AWARE was worn to continuously measure CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the sweat of participants via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Serum samples were collected daily. A linear relationship between serum and sweat readings for CRP and IL-6 was demonstrated based on individual linear correlation coefficients. Pooled CRP and IL-6 serum-to-sweat ratios demonstrated improving correlation coefficients as serum cutoffs decreased. Between the first and last day of observation, significant and non-significant trends in serum CRP and IL-6 were observed in the sweat. Comparison of sweat measurements between the subjects with active IBD and 10 healthy subjects distinguished an inflamed and uninflamed state with an AUC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.68–1.00) and a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 70% at a CRP cutoff of 938.9 pg/mL. IBD AWARE wearable device holds promise in longitudinally monitoring individuals with IBD and other inflammatory diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100435
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics: X
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • CRP
  • Cytokines
  • IL-6 sweat-based sensor
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • Wearable devices


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