Longitudinal change in cognitive performance among individuals with mild cognitive impairment

Marilyn Albert, Mark B. Moss, Deborah Blacker, Rudolph Tanzi, John J. McArdle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


The authors used mixed-effects growth models to examine longitudinal change in neuropsychological performance over a 4-year period among 197 individuals who were either normal or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline. At follow-up, the participants were divided into 4 groups: (a) controls: participants who were normal at both baseline and follow-up (n = 33), (b) stables: participants with MCI whose Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score did not differ between the first and last evaluations (n = 22), (c) decliners: participants with MCI whose CDR-SB score declined between the first and last evaluations (n = 95), and (d) converters: participants who received a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease during the follow-up period (n = 47). Only the Episodic Memory factor showed a significantly greater rate of decline over the follow-up period among the converters. Two other factors were significantly lower in converters at baseline in comparison with other groups (the executive function factor and the general knowledge factor), but the rate of decline over time did not differ. Individuals with an APOE ε4 allele scored lower on the episodic memory and executive function factors at baseline.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-169
Number of pages12
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Cognitive impairment
  • Executive function
  • Longitudinal cognition
  • MCI
  • Memory
  • Prodromal AD


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