Long-term outcome of PCI versus CABG in insulin and non-insulin-treated diabetic patients: Results from the FREEDOM trial

George D. Dangas, Michael E. Farkouh, Lynn A. Sleeper, May Yang, Mikkel M. Schoos, Carlos Macaya, Alexandre Abizaid, Christopher E. Buller, Gerard Devlin, Alfredo E. Rodriguez, Alexandra J. Lansky, F. Sandra Siami, Michael Domanski, Valentin Fuster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

131 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The prospective, randomized FREEDOM (Comparison of Two Treatments for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease in Individuals With Diabetes) trial found coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) was associated with better clinical outcomes than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with diabetes and multivessel disease, managed with or without insulin.

OBJECTIVES: In this subgroup analysis of the FREEDOM trial, we examined the association of long-term clinical outcomes after revascularization in patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) compared with patients not treated with insulin.

METHODS: A total of 1,850 FREEDOM subjects had an index revascularization procedure performed: 956 underwent PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES), and 894 underwent CABG. A total of 602 patients (32.5%) had ITDM (PCI/DES n = 325, 34%; CABG n = 277, 31%). Subjects were classified according to ITDM versus non-ITDM, with comparison of PCI/DES versus CABG for each group. Interaction analyses were performed for treatment by diabetes mellitus (DM) status alone and for treatment by DM status by coronary lesion complexity. Analyses were performed for the primary outcome composite of death/stroke/myocardial infarction (MI) using all available follow-up data.

RESULTS: The overall 5-year event rate of death/stroke/MI was significantly higher in ITDM versus non-ITDM patients (28.7% vs. 19.5%, p < 0.001), which persisted even after adjustment for multiple baseline factors, angiographic complexity, and revascularization treatment group (death/stroke/MI hazard ratio [HR]: 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06 to 1.73, p = 0.014). With respect to the primary composite endpoint, CABG was superior to PCI/DES in both DM types and the magnitude of treatment effect was similar (interaction p = 0.40) for ITDM (PCI vs. CABG HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.87 to 1.69) and non-ITDM patients (PCI vs. CABG HR: 1.46; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.94), even after adjusting for the angiographic SYNTAX score level. Based on 5-year event rates, the number needed to treat with CABG versus PCI to prevent 1 event is 12.7 in ITDM and 13.2 in non-ITDM.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease, the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, MI, or stroke) is higher in patients treated with insulin than in those not treated with insulin. Furthermore, we did not detect a significant difference in the magnitude of PCI versus CABG treatment effect for patients treated with insulin and those not treated with insulin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1189-1197
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 23 Sep 2014


  • angioplasty
  • coronary bypass surgery
  • diabetes
  • revascularization


Dive into the research topics of 'Long-term outcome of PCI versus CABG in insulin and non-insulin-treated diabetic patients: Results from the FREEDOM trial'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this