Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and carotid intima media thickness at bilateral, left and right in adults from Mexico City: Results from GEA study

Rocio Torrico-Lavayen, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, Horacio Riojas-Rodriguez, Marco Sánchez-Guerra, José Luis Texcalac-Sangrador, Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo, Iván Gutiérrez-Avila, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andres Cardenas, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez, Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez

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Abstract

Background: PM2.5 exposure has been associated with intima-media thickness (cIMT) increase. However, very few studies distinguished between left and right cIMT in relation to PM2.5 exposure. Aim: To evaluate associations between chronic exposure to PM2.5 and cIMT at bilateral, left, and right in adults from Mexico City. Methods: This study comprised 913 participants from the control group, participants without personal or family history of cardiovascular disease, of the Genetics of Atherosclerosis Disease Mexican study (GEA acronym in Spanish), recruited at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez from June 2008 to January 2013. To assess the associations between chronic exposure to PM2.5 (per 5 μg/m3 increase) at different lag years (1–4 years) and cIMT (bilateral, left, and right) we applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs). Results: The median and interquartile range for cIMT at bilateral, left, and right, were 630 (555, 735), 640 (550, 750), and 620 (530, 720) μm, respectively. Annual average PM2.5 exposure was 26.64 μg/m3, with median and IQR, of 24.46 (23.5–25.46) μg/m3. Results from DLNMs adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, low-density lipoproteins, and glucose, showed that PM2.5 exposure for year 1 and 2, were positively and significantly associated with right-cIMT [6.99% (95% CI: 3.67; 10.42) and 2.98% (0.03; 6.01), respectively]. Negative associations were observed for PM2.5 at year 3 and 4 and right-cIMT; however only year 3 was statistically significant [-2.83% (95% CI: 5.12; −0.50)]. Left-cIMT was not associated with PM2.5 exposure at any lag year. The increase in bilateral cIMT followed a similar pattern as that observed for right-cIMT, but with lower estimates. Conclusions: Our results suggest different susceptibility between left and right cIMT associated with PM2.5 exposure highlighting the need of measuring both, left and right cIMT, regarding ambient air pollution in epidemiological studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number139009
JournalChemosphere
Volume335
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Keywords

  • Carotid intima media thickness
  • Distributed lag non-linear models
  • Left IMT
  • Mexico city
  • PM2.5
  • Right IMT

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