Long-term exposure to air pollution and anti-mullerian hormone rate of decline: a population-based cohort study in Tehran, Iran

Zahra Namvar, Anoushiravan Mohseni-Bandpei, Abbas Shahsavani, Heresh Amini, Maryam Mousavi, Philip K. Hopke, Elahe Shahhosseini, Fariba Khodagholi, Seyed Saeed Hashemi, Fereidoun Azizi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

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Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) concentration is a marker of ovarian reserve that decreases with age. However, a decrease in AMH may occur more rapidly under the influence of environmental factors. The present study investigated the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with serum concentrations of AMH and the AMH rate of decline. This study included 806 women with median age of 43 years (interquartile range: 38–48) participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) that were followed from 2005 to 2017. The AMH concentration and the demographic, anthropometric, and personal health parameters of the study participants were obtained from the TLGS cohort database. Air pollutant data were collected from the monitoring stations and the individual exposures were estimated by previously developed land use regression (LUR) models. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate linear relationships between the air pollutant exposures and serum concentration of AMH and with the AMH declination rate. The results show no statistically significant associations between exposures to any of the air pollutants (including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO, NO2, NOX, and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX) with serum concentration of AMH. Compared to the first tertile, no statistically significant associations were observed between the second or third tertiles of air pollutants, with the AMH rate of decline. In this study, we did not find significant association between air pollution and AMH in middle age women in Tehran, Iran. Future work may study such associations in younger women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86987-86997
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number37
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Air pollutants
  • Ambient air
  • Anti-mullerian hormone
  • Ovarian reserves


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