Long form of latent TGF-β binding protein 1 (Ltbp1L) is essential for cardiac outflow tract septation and remodeling

Vesna Todorovic, David Frendewey, David E. Gutstein, Yan Chen, Laina Freyer, Erin Finnegan, Fangyu Liu, Andrew Murphy, David Valenzuela, George Yancopoulos, Daniel B. Rifkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Latent TGF-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1) is a member of the LTBP/ fibrillin family of extracellular proteins. Due to the usage of different promoters, LTBP1 exists in two major forms, long (L) and short (S), each expressed in a temporally and spatially unique fashion. Both LTBP1 molecules covalently interact with latent TGF-β and regulate its function, presumably via interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM). To explore the in vivo role of Ltbp1 in mouse development, at the time when only the L isoform is expressed, we mutated the Ltbp1L locus by gene targeting. Ltbp1L-null animals die shortly after birth from defects in heart development, consisting of the improper septation of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT) and remodeling of the associated vessels. These cardiac anomalies present as persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and interrupted aortic arch (IAA), which are associated with the faulty function of cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs). The lack of Ltbp1L in the ECM of the septating OFT and associated vessels results in altered gene expression and function of CNCCs and decreased Tgf-β activity in the OFT. This phenotype reveals a crucial role for Ltbp1L and matrix as extracellular regulators of Tgf-β activity in heart organogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3723-3732
Number of pages10
JournalDevelopment (Cambridge)
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • ECM
  • LTBP1
  • Mouse
  • OFT septation
  • TGFβ


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