Load dependence of cardiac output in biventricular pacing: Left ventricular volume overload in pigs

George Berberian, T. Alexander Quinn, Santos E. Cabreriza, Cara A. Garofalo, Dulce M. Barrios, Alan D. Weinberg, Henry M. Spotnitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that optimization of biventricular pacing is load dependent. Cardiac output was maximized with a ventricular-ventricular delay of +40 milliseconds (right ventricle-first pacing) during right ventricular pressure overload and with a ventricular-ventricular delay of -40 milliseconds (left ventricle-first pacing) during right ventricular volume overload. We hypothesized that a model of left ventricular volume overload would also have specific timing requirements during biventricular pacing for optimization of cardiac output. Methods: After median sternotomy in 6 anesthetized pigs, complete heart block was induced by ethanol ablation. A conduit was grafted from the left ventricle to the left atrium to produce left ventricular volume overload. An ultrasonic flow probe was placed around the conduit to measure retrograde flow that averaged 50% of cardiac output. During epicardial atrial tracking DDD biventricular pacing, atrioventricular delay was varied between 60 and 270 milliseconds in 30-millisescond increments for 20-second intervals. After determination of optimum atrioventricular delay, ventricular-ventricular delay was varied in 20-millisecond increments from +80 to -80 milliseconds for 20-second intervals. Results: Ventricular-ventricular delays had no significant effect on cardiac output with the graft clamped (control). With the graft unclamped, however, there was a statistically significant (P = .0001 by repeated-measures analysis of variance) trend toward higher cardiac output with right ventricle-first pacing. Conclusions: Right ventricle-first pacing in swine significantly increased cardiac output during acute left ventricular volume overload, but not during the control state. Understanding load-specific pacing requirements will facilitate the development of perioperative temporary biventricular pacing for acute heart failure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)666-670
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume131
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2006
Externally publishedYes

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