HCV infection is the leading cause of liver transplantation in the adult population in the United States. HCV infection occurs in 0.2-0.4% of the pediatric population and progression to HCC is uncommon. Liver transplantation for HCV in children is rare. In this report, we present a case of pediatric patient with HCV and multifocal HCC at the age of 13 who underwent successful liver transplantation. While good graft function was initially observed, at one month after transplant, he experienced significant hepatitis C recurrence. He was treated with low-accelerating dose regimen antiviral therapy of PEG-IFN and RBV, followed by addition of a protease inhibitor, boceprevir, which led to viral clearance. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the post-transplant course of a child transplanted for HCV and HCC, and the first pediatric case report on using the triple therapy for management of post-liver transplant recurrence of HCV. This case report demonstrates the need for increased vigilance of surveillance for HCC during childhood.
- pediatric liver transplantation
- viral infection