Hepatitis C virus infection has been the most common etiology in HCC-related liver transplantation (LT). Since 2014, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have dramatically improved HCV cure. We aimed to study the changing pattern of etiologies and impact in outcome in HCC-related LT according to HCV treatment-era through retrospective analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) database (1987-2017). A total of 27 855 HCC-related liver transplants were performed (median age 59 years, 77% male). In the DAA era (2014-2017) there has been a 14.6% decrease in LT for HCV-related HCC; however, HCV remains the most common etiology in 50% of cases. In the same era, there has been a 50% increase in LT for NAFLD-related HCC. Overall survival was significantly worse for HCV-related HCC compared to NAFLD-related HCC during pre-DAA era (2002-2013; P =.031), but these differences disappeared in the DAA era. In addition, HCV patients had a significant improvement in survival when comparing the DAA era with IFN era (P <.001). Independent predictors of survival were significantly different in the pre-DAA era (HCV, AFP, diabetes) than in the DAA era (tumor size). HCV-related HCC continues to be the main indication for LT in the DAA era, but patients’ survival has significantly improved and is comparable to that of NAFLD-related HCC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-230
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • clinical research/practice
  • liver disease: infectious
  • liver disease: malignant
  • liver transplantation/hepatology


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