Large language models: a primer and gastroenterology applications

Omer Shahab, Bara El Kurdi, Aasma Shaukat, Girish Nadkarni, Ali Soroush

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Over the past year, the emergence of state-of-the-art large language models (LLMs) in tools like ChatGPT has ushered in a rapid acceleration in artificial intelligence (AI) innovation. These powerful AI models can generate tailored and high-quality text responses to instructions and questions without the need for labor-intensive task-specific training data or complex software engineering. As the technology continues to mature, LLMs hold immense potential for transforming clinical workflows, enhancing patient outcomes, improving medical education, and optimizing medical research. In this review, we provide a practical discussion of LLMs, tailored to gastroenterologists. We highlight the technical foundations of LLMs, emphasizing their key strengths and limitations as well as how to interact with them safely and effectively. We discuss some potential LLM use cases for clinical gastroenterology practice, education, and research. Finally, we review critical barriers to implementation and ongoing work to address these issues. This review aims to equip gastroenterologists with a foundational understanding of LLMs to facilitate a more active clinician role in the development and implementation of this rapidly emerging technology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • ChatGPT
  • artificial intelligence
  • large language models
  • machine learning


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