King-Devick Test Performance and Cognitive Dysfunction after Concussion: A Pilot Eye Movement Study

Doria M. Gold, John Ross Rizzo, Yuen Shan Christine Lee, Amanda Childs, Todd E. Hudson, John Martone, Yuka K. Matsuzawa, Felicia Fraser, Joseph H. Ricker, Weiwei Dai, Ivan Selesnick, Laura J. Balcer, Steven L. Galetta, Janet C. Rucker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

(1) Background: The King-Devick (KD) rapid number naming test is sensitive for concussion diagnosis, with increased test time from baseline as the outcome measure. Eye tracking during KD performance in concussed individuals shows an association between inter-saccadic interval (ISI) (the time between saccades) prolongation and prolonged testing time. This pilot study retrospectively assesses the relation between ISI prolongation during KD testing and cognitive performance in persistently-symptomatic individuals post-concussion. (2) Results: Fourteen participants (median age 34 years; 6 women) with prior neuropsychological assessment and KD testing with eye tracking were included. KD test times (72.6 ± 20.7 s) and median ISI (379.1 ±199.1 msec) were prolonged compared to published normative values. Greater ISI prolongation was associated with lower scores for processing speed (WAIS-IV Coding, r = 0.72, p = 0.0017), attention/working memory (Trails Making A, r = −0.65, p = 0.006) (Digit Span Forward, r = 0.57, p = −0.017) (Digit Span Backward, r= −0.55, p = 0.021) (Digit Span Total, r = −0.74, p = 0.001), and executive function (Stroop Color Word Interference, r = −0.8, p = 0.0003). (3) Conclusions: This pilot study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that cognitive dysfunction may be associated with prolonged ISI and KD test times in concussion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1571
JournalBrain Sciences
Volume11
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cognitive dysfunction
  • Concussion
  • Inter-saccadic interval
  • King-Devick
  • Rapid automatized naming tasks
  • Saccades

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