Is familial risk for depression confounded by individual and familial socioeconomic factors and neighborhood environmental factors? A 7-year follow-up study in Sweden

Tsuyoshi Hamano, Xinjun Li, Sara Larsson Lönn, Toru Nabika, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Family history of depression is an important risk factor for depression. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effect of family history of depression is confounded by individual and familial socioeconomic factors (i.e., country of origin, educational attainment, family income and mobility) and neighborhood environmental factors (i.e., neighborhood deprivation and neighborhood social capital). The study population comprised 188,907 individuals aged 20–44 years from a nationwide sample of primary care centers in Sweden. Among these individuals, 22,014 with a first event of depression (6,486 men and 15,528 women) were identified during the 7-year follow-up period. Family history of depression was defined as depression in at least one parent. Cross-classified multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% credible intervals. Increased familial odds were observed after adjustment for individual and familial socioeconomic factors and neighborhood environmental factors for both men and women. Our results suggest that family history of depression is an independent risk factor for depression. Offspring of parents with depression are important targets for disease prevention, regardless of individual and familial socioeconomic factors and neighborhood environmental factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-35
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Research
Volume266
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2018

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Familial risk
  • Follow-up study
  • Multilevel analysis

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