The field of neuromodulation, at its essence, aims to apply electrical stimulation to the brain to ameliorate various pathology. Many methods of applying this stimulation exist, including invasive and non-invasive means. In the realm of invasive stimulation, stimulation of the cortex remains one of the earliest techniques investigated, yet one of the most underutilized today. Evidence for the efficacy of direct invasive cortical stimulation continues to mount, especially in recent years. In this chapter we will review the evidence for the use of invasive cortical stimulation as it applies to neuropathic pain, epilepsy, psychiatric disease, movement disorders, tinnitus, and post-stroke recovery, as well explore some potential mechanisms and future directions of the technique.